to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war,
which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind,
and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity
and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and
women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions
under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from
treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained,
and to promote social progress and better standards of life in
larger freedom, and for these ends to practice tolerance and live
together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and to unite
our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure by the acceptance of principles and the institution
of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common
interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion
of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved
to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims.
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
The Purposes of the United Nations are:
1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
4. To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these
The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.
1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.
2. All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.
3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.
4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.
5. All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.
7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures
under Chapter VII.
The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of January 1,
1942, sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article 110.
1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
A member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.
A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
1. There are established as the principal organs of the United Nations: a General Assembly, a Security Council, an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, an International Court of Justice, and a Secretariat.
2. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary may be established in accordance with the present Charter.
The United Nations shall place no restrictions on the eligibility of men and women to participate in any capacity and under conditions of equality in its principal and subsidiary organs.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
1. The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.
2. Each member shall have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly.
Functions and Powers
The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.
1. The General Assembly may consider the general principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.
2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion.
3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations
which are likely to endanger international peace and security.
4. The powers of the General Assembly set forth in this Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10.
1. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall not make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the Security Council so requests.
2. The Secretary-General, with the consent of the Security Council, shall notify the General Assembly at each session of any matters relative to the maintenance of international peace and security which are being dealt with by the Security Council and shall similarly notify the General Assembly, or the Members of the United Nations if the General Assembly is not in session, immediately the Security Council ceases to deal with such matters.
1. The General Assembly shall initiate studies and make recommendations for the
a. promoting international cooperation in the political field and encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification;
b. promoting international cooperation in the economic, social, cultural, educational, and health fields, and assisting in the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
2. The further responsibilities, functions and powers of
the General Assembly with
respect to matters mentioned in paragraph 1(b) above are set forth in Chapters IX and
Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the General Assembly may recommend
measures for the peaceful adjustment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it
deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly relations among nations, including
situations resulting from a violation of the provisions of the present Charter setting forth
the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.
1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports from the
Security Council; these reports shall include an account of the measures that the
Security Council has decided upon or taken to maintain international peace and
2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of
the United Nations.
The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international
trusteeship system as are assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII, including the
approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.
1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve the budget of the Organization.
2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by the Members as apportioned by
the General Assembly.
3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary
arrangements with specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the
administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned.
1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a
two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include:
recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security,
the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the election of the
members of the Economic and Social Council, the election of members of the
Trusteeship Council in accordance with paragraph 1© of Article 86, the admission of
new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the rights and privileges of
membership, the expulsion of Members, questions relating to the operation of the
trusteeship system, and budgetary questions.
3. Decisions on other questions, Composition including the determination of additional
categories of questions to be decided by a two-thirds majority, shall be made by a
majority of the members present and voting.
A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in the payment of its financial
contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the
amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for
the preceding two full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a
Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the
control of the Member.
The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual sessions and in such special sessions
as occasion may require. Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary-General
at the request of the Security Council or of a majority of the Members of the United
The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its President
for each session.
The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for
the performance of its functions.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations. The
Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall
be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten
other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security
Council, due regard being specially paid, in the first instance to the contribution of
Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of international peace and security
and to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical
The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall
be elected for a term of two
years. In the first election of the non-permanent members after the increase of the
membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, two of the four additional
members shall be chosen for a term of one year. A retiring member shall not be eligible
for immediate re-election.
Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative.
Functions and Powers
1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members
confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international
peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the
Security Council acts on their behalf.
2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the
Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the
Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII,
VIII, and XII.
3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when necessary, special reports to the
General Assembly for its consideration.
The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the
Security Council in accordance with the present Charter.
In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and
security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic
resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance
of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the
Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of
1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an
affirmative vote of nine members.
3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative
vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members;
provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of Article 52, a
party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.
1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously.
Each member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at all times
at the seat of the Organization.
2. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at which each of its members may,
if it so desires, be represented by a member of the government or by some other
specially designated representative.
3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the
Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work.
The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the
performance of its functions.
The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of
selecting its President.
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may
participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security
Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member are specially
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or
any state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under
consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in the
discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay down such conditions
as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United
PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the
maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by
negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to
regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle
their dispute by such means.
The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to
international friction or give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether the
continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger the maintenance of
international peace and security.
1. Any Member of the United Nations may bring any dispute, or any situation of the
nature referred to in Article 34, to the attention of the Security Council or of the General
2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may bring to the attention of
the Security Council or of the General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if it
accepts in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the obligations of pacific settlement
provided in the present Charter.
3. The proceedings of the General Assembly in respect of matters brought to its
attention under this Article will be subject to the provisions of Articles 11 and 12.
1. The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute of the nature referred to in
Article 33 or of a situation of like nature, recommend appropriate procedures or
methods of adjustment.
2. The Security Council should take into consideration any procedures for the settlement of the dispute which have already been adopted by the parties.
3. In making recommendations under this Article the Security Council should also take
into consideration that legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by the parties
to the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provisions of the Statute of
1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 fail to settle it by
the means indicated in that Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council.
2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance of the dispute is in fact likely to
endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, it shall decide whether to
take action under Article 36 or to recommend such terms of settlement as it may
Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, the Security Council may, if all
the parties to any dispute so request, make recommendations to the parties with a view
to a pacific settlement of the dispute.
ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE,
AND ACTS OF AGGRESSION
The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of
the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what
measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore
international peace and security.
In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may, before
making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39,
call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems
necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the
rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The Security Council shall duly take
account of failure to comply with such provisional measures.
The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force
are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of
the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial
interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and
other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.
Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be
inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land
forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such
action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land
forces of Members of the United Nations.
1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of
international peace and security, undertake to make available to the Security Council,
on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements, armed forces,
assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of
maintaining international peace and security.
2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces. their
degree of readiness and general location, and the nature of the facilities and assistance
to be provided.
3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible on the initiative
of the Security Council. They shall be concluded between the Security Council and
Members or between the Security Council and groups of Members and shall be subject
to ratification by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional
When the Security Council has decided to use force it shall, before calling upon a
Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfillment of the obligations
assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires, to participate
in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the employment of contingents of
that Member's armed forces.
In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures Members shall
hold immediately available national air-force contingents for combined international
enforcement action. The strength and degree of readiness of these contingents and plans
for their combined action shall be determined, within the limits laid down in the special
agreement or agreements referred to in Article 43, by the Security Council with the
assistance of the Military Staff Committee.
Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security Council with the
assistance of the Military Staff Committee.
1. There shall be established a Military Staff Committee to advise and assist the
Security Council on all questions relating to the Security Council's military requirements
for the maintenance of international peace and security, the employment and command
of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation of armaments, and possible disarmament.
2. The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the permanent
members of the Security Council or their representatives. Any Member of the United
Nations not permanently represented on the Committee shall be invited by the
Committee to be associated with it when the efficient discharge of the Committee's
responsibilities requires the participation of that Member in its work.
3. The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under the Security Council for the
strategic direction of any armed forces placed at the disposal of the Security Council.
Questions relating to the command of such forces shall be worked out subsequently.
4. The Military Staff Committee, with the authorization of the Security Council and after
consultation with appropriate regional agencies, may establish regional subcommittees.
1. The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for the
maintenance of international peace and security shall be taken by all the Members of the
United Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may determine.
2. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of the United Nations directly
and through their action in the appropriate international agencies of which they are
The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying
out the measures decided upon by the Security Council.
If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security
Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or not, which finds
itself confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out of those
measures shall have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective
self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the
Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and
security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defense shall
be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the
authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at
any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international
peace and security.
1. Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence of regional arrangements or
agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace
and security as are appropriate for regional action, provided that such arrangements or
agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the
2. The Members of the United Nations entering into such arrangements or constituting
such agencies shall make every effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes
through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies before referring them
to the Security Council.
3. The Security Council shall encourage the development of pacific settlement of local
disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the
initiative of the states concerned or by reference from the Security Council.
4. This Article in no way impairs the application of Articles 34 and 35.
1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or
agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be
taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of
the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any enemy state, as
defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to Article 107 or in regional
arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive policy on the part of any such
state, until such time as the Organization may, on request of the Governments
concerned, be charged with the responsibility for preventing further aggression by such
2. The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of this Article applies to any state which
during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present
The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken or
in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the maintenance of international peace and security.
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CO-OPERATION
With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary
for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of
equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:
a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development;
b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural and educational co-operation; and
c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in cooperation with
the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55.
1. The various specialized agencies, established by intergovernmental agreement and
having wide international responsibilities, as defined in their basic instruments, in
economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be brought into
relationship with the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of Article 63.
2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the United Nations are hereinafter
referred to as specialized agencies.
The Organization shall make recommendations for the coordination of the policies and
activities of the specialized agencies.
The Organization shall, where appropriate, initiate negotiations among the states
concerned for the creation of any new specialized agencies required for the accomplishment of the purposes set forth in Article 55.
Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the Organization set forth in this
Chapter shall be vested in the General Assembly and, under the authority of the General
Assembly, in the Economic and Social Council, which shall have for this purpose the
powers set forth in Chapter X.
THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of fifty-four Members of the United
Nations elected by the General Assembly.
2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, eighteen members of the Economic and
Social Council shall be elected each year for a term of three years. A retiring member
shall be eligible for immediate re-election.
3. At the first election after the increase in the membership of the Economic and Social
Council from twenty-seven to fifty-four members, in addition to the members elected in
place of the nine members whose term of office expires at the end of that year,
twenty-seven additional members shall be elected. Of these twenty-seven additional
members, the term of office of nine members so elected shall expire at the end of one
year, and of nine other members at the end of two years, in accordance with arrangements made by the General Assembly.
4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one representative.
Functions and Powers
1. The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with
respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related
matters and may make recommendations with respect to any such matters to the
General Assembly, to the Members of the United Nations, and to the specialized
2. It may make recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for, and
observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.
3. It may prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly, with
respect to matters falling within its competence.
4. It may call, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the United Nations, international conferences on matters falling within its competence.
1. The Economic and Social Council may enter into agreements with any of the
agencies referred to in Article 57, defining the terms on which the agency concerned
shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations. Such agreements shall be
subject to approval by the General Assembly.
2. It may coordinate the activities of the specialized agencies through consultation with
and recommendations to such agencies and through recommendations to the General
Assembly and to the Members of the United Nations.
1. The Economic and Social Council may take appropriate steps to obtain regular
reports from the specialized agencies. It may make arrangements with the Members of
the United Nations and with the specialized agencies to obtain reports on the steps
taken to give effect to its own recommendations and to recommendations on matters
falling within its competence made by the General Assembly.
2. It may communicate its observations on these reports to the General Assembly .
The Economic and Social Council may furnish information to the Security Council and
shall assist the Security Council upon its request.
1. The Economic and Social Council shall perform such functions as fall within its
competence in connection with the carrying out of the recommendations of the General
2. It may, with the approval of the General Assembly, perform services at the request of
Members of the United Nations and at the request of specialized agencies.
3. It shall perform such other functions as are specified elsewhere in the present Charter
or as may be assigned to it by the General Assembly.
1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall be made by a majority of the
members present and voting.
The Economic and Social Council shall set up commissions in economic and social
fields and for the promotion of human rights, and such other commissions as may be
required for the performance of its functions.
The Economic and Social Council shall invite any Member of the United Nations to
participate, without vote, in its deliberations on any matter of particular concern to that
The Economic and Social Council may make arrangements for representatives of the
specialized agencies to participate, without vote, in its deliberations and in those of the
commissions established by it, and for its representatives to participate in the deliberations of the specialized agencies.
The Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation
with non-governmental organizations which are concerned with matters within its
competence. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations and,
where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the Member of the
United Nations concerned.
1. The Economic and Social Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including
the method of selecting its President.
2. The Economic and Social Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules,
which shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority
of its members.
DECLARATION REGARDING NON-SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORIES
Members of the United Nations which have or assume responsibilities for the
administration of territories whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of
self-government recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of these
territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the
utmost, within the system of international peace and security established by the present
Charter, the well-being of the inhabitants of these territories, and, to this end:
a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and educational advancement, their just treatment, and their protection against abuses;
b. to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions, according to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and their varying stages of advancement;
c. to further international peace and security;
d. to promote constructive measures of development, to encourage research, and to cooperate with one another and, when and where appropriate, with specialized international bodies with a view to the practical achievement of the social, economic, and scientific purposes set forth in this Article; and
e. to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for information purposes, subject to such limitation as security and constitutional considerations may
require, statistical and other information of a technical nature relating to economic, social, and educational conditions in the territories for which they are respectively responsible other than those territories to which Chapter XII and XIII apply.
Members of the United Nations also agree that their policy in respect of the territories
to which this Chapter applies, no less than in respect of their metropolitan areas, must
be based on the general principle of good-neighborliness, due account being taken of
the interests and well-being of the rest of the world, in social, economic, and commercial matters.
INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM
The United Nations shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship system
for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by
subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust
The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in accordance with the Purposes of the
United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be:
a. to further international peace and security;
b. to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories, and their progressive
development towards self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned, and as may be provided by the terms of each trusteeship agreement;
c. to encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of the world; and
d. to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and commercial matters for all Members of the United Nations and their nationals and also equal treatment for the latter in the administration of justice without prejudice to the attainment of the foregoing objectives and subject to the provisions of Article 80.
1. The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories in the following categories as
may be placed thereunder by means of trusteeship agreements:
a. territories now held under mandate;
b. territories which may be detached from enemy states as a result of the
Second World War, and
c. territories voluntarily placed under the system by states responsible for their administration.
2. It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to which
territories in the foregoing
categories will be brought under the trusteeship system and upon what terms.
The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members of the
United Nations, relationship among which shall be based on respect for the principle of
The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed under the trusteeship system,
including any alteration or amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly
concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of territories held under mandate
by a Member of the United Nations, and shall be approved as provided for in Articles
83 and 85.
1. Except as may be agreed upon in individual trusteeship agreements, made under
Articles 77, 79, and 81, placing each territory under the trusteeship system, and until
such agreements have been concluded, nothing in this Chapter shall be construed in or
of itself to alter in any manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples or the
terms of existing international instruments to which Members of the United Nations may
respectively be parties.
2. Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted as giving grounds for delay or
postponement of the negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing mandated
and other territories under the trusteeship system as provided for in Article 77.
The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the trust
territory will be administered and designate the authority which will exercise the
administration of the trust territory. Such authority, hereinafter called the administering
authority, may be one or more states or the Organization itself.
There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, a strategic area or areas which
may include part or all of the trust territory to which the agreement applies, without
prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made under Article 43.
1. All functions of the United Nations relating to strategic areas, including the approval
of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall be
exercised by the Security Council.
2. The basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be applicable to the people of each
3. The Security Council shall, subject to the provisions of the trusteeship agreements
and without prejudice to security considerations, avail itself of the assistance of the
Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of the United Nations under the
trusteeship system relating to political. economic, social, and educational matters in the
It shall be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the trust territory shall
play its part in the maintenance of international peace and security. To this end the
administering authority may make use of volunteer forces, facilities, and assistance from
the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council
undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as for local defense and
the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.
1. The functions of the United Nations with regard to trusteeship agreements for all
areas not designated as strategic, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship
agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall be exercised by the General
2. The Trusteeship Council, operating under the authority of the General Assembly,
shall assist the General Assembly in carrying out these functions.
THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
1. The Trusteeship Council shall consist of the following Members of the United
a. those Members administering trust territories;
b. such of those Members mentioned by name in Article 23 as are not administering trust territories; and
c. as many other Members elected for three-year terms by the General Assembly as may be necessary to ensure that the total number of members of the Trusteeship Council is equally divided between those Members of the United Nations which administer trust territories and those which do not.
2. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall designate
one specially qualified
person to represent it therein.
Functions and Powers
The General Assembly and, under its authority, the Trusteeship Council, in carrying out
their functions, may:
a. consider reports submitted by the administering authority;
b. accept petitions and examine them in consultation with the administering authority;
c. provide for periodic visits to the respective trust territories at times agreed upon with the administering authority; and
d. take these and other actions in conformity with the terms of the trusteeship agreements.
The Trusteeship Council shall formulate a questionnaire on the political, economic,
social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of each trust territory, and the
administering authority for each trust territory within the competence of the General
Assembly shall make an annual report to the General Assembly upon the basis of such
1. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Trusteeship Council shall be made by a majority of the members
present and voting.
1. The Trusteeship Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method
of selecting its President.
2. The Trusteeship Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules, which
shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of its
The Trusteeship Council shall, when appropriate, avail itself of the assistance of the
Economic and Social Council and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters with
which they are respectively concerned.
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
The International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United
Nations. It shall function in accordance with the annexed Statute which is based upon
the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and forms an integral part of
the present Charter.
1. All Members of the United Nations are ipso facto parties to the Statute of the
International Court of Justice.
2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may become a party to the
Statute of the International Court of Justice on conditions to be determined in each case
by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
1. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with the decision of the
International Court of Justice in any case to which it is a party.
2. If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a
judgment rendered by the Court, the other party may have recourse to the Security
Council, which may, if it deems necessary, make recommendations or decide upon
measures to be taken to give effect to the judgment.
Nothing in the present Charter shall prevent Members of the United Nations from
entrusting the solution of their differences to other tribunals by virtue of agreements
already in existence or which may be concluded in the future.
1. The General Assembly or the Security Council may request the International Court of
Justice to give an advisory opinion on any legal question.
2. Other organs of the United Nations and specialized agencies, which may at any time
be so authorized by the General Assembly, may also request advisory opinions of the
Court on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities.
The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary-General and such staff as the Organization
may require. The Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon
the recommendation of the Security Council. He shall be the chief administrative officer of the Organization.
The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Trusteeship Council, and shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him by these organs. The Secretary-General shall make an annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the Organization.
The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.
1. In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek
or receive instructions from any government or from any other authority external to the Organization. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to the Organization.
2. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities.
1. The staff shall be appointed by the Secretary-General under regulations established by the General Assembly.
2. Appropriate staffs shall be permanently assigned to the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, and, as required, to other organs of the United Nations. These staffs shall form a part of the Secretariat.
3. The paramount consideration in the employment of the staff and in the determination of the conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity. Due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.
1. Every treaty and every international agreement entered into by any Member of the United Nations after the present Charter comes into force shall as soon as possible be registered with the Secretariat and published by it.
2. No party to any such treaty or international agreement which has not been registered in accordance with the provisions of paragraph I of this Article may invoke that treaty or agreement before any organ of the United Nations.
In the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Members of the United Nations under the present Charter and their obligations under any other international agreement, their obligations under the present Charter shall prevail.
The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfillment of its purposes.
1. The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the fulfillment of its purposes.
2. Representatives of the Members of the United Nations and officials of the Organization shall similarly enjoy such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the independent exercise of their functions in connection with the Organization.
3. The General Assembly may make recommendations with a view to determining the details of the application of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article or may propose conventions to the Members of the United Nations for this purpose.
TRANSITIONAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS
Pending the coming into force of such special agreements referred to in Article 43 as in the opinion of the Security Council enable it to begin the exercise of its responsibilities under Article 42, the parties to the Four-Nation Declaration, signed at Moscow October 30, 1943, and France, shall, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of that Declaration, consult with one another and as occasion requires with other Members of the United Nations with a view to such joint action on behalf of the Organization as may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.
Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that war by the Governments having responsibility for such action.
Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the United
Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations, including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
1. A General Conference of the Members of the United Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two- thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any seven members of the Security Council. Each Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the conference.
2. Any alteration of the present Charter recommended by a two-thirds vote of the conference shall take effect when ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
3. If such a conference has not been held before the tenth annual session of the General Assembly following the coming into force of the present Charter, the proposal to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of that session of the General Assembly, and the conference shall be held if so decided by a majority vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any seven members of the Security Council.
RATIFICATION AND SIGNATURE
1. The present Charter shall be ratified by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
2. The ratifications shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of America, which shall notify all the signatory states of each deposit as well as the Secretary-General of the Organization when he has been appointed.
3. The present Charter shall come into force upon the deposit of ratification's by the Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, and by a majority of the other signatory states. A protocol of the ratification's deposited shall thereupon be drawn up by the Government of the United States of America which shall communicate copies thereof to all the signatory states.
4. The states signatory to the present Charter which ratify it after it has come into force will become original Members of the United Nations on the date of the deposit of their respective ratifications.
The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish texts
are equally authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the Governments of the other signatory states.
IN FAITH WHEREOF the representatives of the Governments of the United Nations have signed the present Charter.
DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five.
Millennium Assembly & Summit Declaration which was presented to the delegates to the Millennium Assembly and Summit meeting at the United Nation in New York, September 6 - 9, 2000. Delegates will undoubtedly make minor word changes during the session, but the essence of the Declaration will remain. (Comments in brackets have been added in explanation to the context of the use of words.)
I. Values and Principles
1. We, the Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the United Nations, have gathered at the dawn of a new Millennium at United Nations Headquarters in New York to reaffirm our faith in the Organisation and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.
2. We recognise that, in addition to our separate responsibilities to our individual societies, we have a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of equality and equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty, therefore, to all the world's people, especially to the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world, to whom the future belongs.
3. We reaffirm our commitment to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter, (refer to the UN Charter) which have proved timeless and universal. Indeed, their relevance and capacity to inspire have increased as nations and peoples have become increasingly inter-connected and interdependent. (UN have caused nations to become "interdependent" this has not happened as a matter or course.)
4. We believe that the central challenge we face today is to ensure that globalisation becomes a positive force for all the world's people. (note the words "globalisation & force" are in the same sentence) For while globalisation offers great opportunities, at present its benefits are very unevenly distributed and its costs mainly borne by the developing countries. (globalisation by it's very nature encourages wealthy companies and countries exploit the poverty of other nations yet UN is still promoting globalisation) To be inclusive and equitable, globalisation requires broad and sustained effort to create a shared future, based upon our common humanity in all its diversity. It also requires policies and measures that are sensitive to the needs of developing countries.
5. We consider certain fundamental values to be essential to international relations in the 21st Century. These include:
Multilateralism: The management of worldwide economic and social development as well as risks and threats to international peace and security must be a shared responsibility. As the most universal and most representative organisation in the world, the United Nations must play a central role in exercising this responsibility. (UN just placed itself as the World Police Force of economic/social/international peace and security. In this the UN require every nation to provide young men to die for this cause.)
Freedom: Men and women have the right to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and from the fear of violence, oppression or injustice. Democratic and participatory governance based on the will of the people best assures these rights. (1. a "right" granted by a government or international government can be altered or removed by the grantor at any time. 2. The so called "right" seems to open the door for UN World Police Force to come in and provide what they consider to be dignity, food, non-violence/oppression or worse still UN justice. Refer to "UN Charter")
Equality: No individual and no nation (both words mean corporation) must be denied the opportunity to benefit from development. The equal rights and opportunities of women and men must be assured. (The word "must" [after nation] puts a totally different meaning to the sentence, one would think the word should be "should" but it isn't it's "must". Also note the order of "women and men" this sentence is the reverse of how God ordered this in Genesis where He as a Sovereign God placed the man over the woman.)
Solidarity: Global challenges must be managed multilaterally, and in a way that shares the costs and burdens fairly in accordance with the most basic principles of equity and social justice. Those who suffer, or who benefit least, are entitled to help from those who benefit most. (Ann Rand would love this, here we have the "entitlement" being given by UN for the removal of resources form one, and the "help" spoken of always comes with an entrapping fish hook.)
Tolerance: Human beings must respect each other, in all their diversity of faith, culture and language. Differences within and between societies should neither be feared nor repressed, but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. Dialogue among all civilisations should be actively promoted. (opinion: if dialogue was between the real people of the nations I would agree, however the dialogue referred to will be at UN and government levels.)
Respect for nature: Prudence must be shown in the management of all living species and natural resources, in accordance with the precepts of sustainable development. Only so can the immeasurable riches provided to "us" by nature be preserved and passed on to "our descendants". (when ever you read the word "sustainable" what is being said is the the world population must be lowered to match the natural resources. It also means that if you have a resource [like water] they will stop you from using it. Did you note that the reason for the above is not for all peoples but for "us" and "our descendants" you and I did not write these things. Who are these people spoken of?)
The current unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be seriously addressed in the interest of our future. (two-thirds of the population of the earth being removed from existence would do this.)
6. In translating these shared values into actions we have identified the key objectives to which we assign particular significance.
II. Peace, Security and Disarmament
7. We will spare no effort (in the UN Charter it is clear that violence is intended to implement this) to free our peoples from the scourge of war, both intra and interstate, which has claimed more than 5 million lives in the past decade. We will at the same time seek to eliminate the dangers posed by weapons of mass destruction. UN is the driving force behind the disarming of the nations and peoples while at the same time demanding that they [the UN] be armed to the teeth and given GREAT POWER.)
8. We resolve therefore:
To strengthen respect for the rule of law, in international as in national affairs, and in particular to ensure the implementation of both the agreed provisions of treaties on the control of armaments and of international humanitarian and human rights laws. In this connection, we urge all States to sign and ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
(Now this is interesting
legs of iron and feet of
iron and clay "Rome Statute of the International Criminal
a must find this document me thinks.
Wooo HEADS UP! like what's in the following
"Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court"
Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
1. This Statute shall be open for signature by all States in Rome, at the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, on 17 July 1998. Thereafter, it shall remain open for signature in Rome at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Italy until 17 October 1998. After that date, the Statute shall remain open for signature in New York, at United Nations Headquarters, until 31 December 2000.
2. This Statute is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by signatory States. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. This Statute shall be open to accession by all States. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 121 "Amendments"
1. After the expiry of seven years from the entry into force of this Statute, any State Party may propose amendments thereto.
(now what we have here is that any and every party that signs this document, has agreed to a seven year term of honouring the legal power of the International Criminal Court in the hands of the United Nations through a treaty formed in Rome under International law otherwise known as Roman law, for the purpose of .
What is the above for???? Read below .
To enhance the effectiveness of the United Nations in the
maintenance of peace and security, by giving it the resources
(world tax) and the tools (world police force of UN) required
to promote conflict prevention, the peaceful resolution of disputes,
post-conflict peace building and reconstruction, and by strengthening
the capacity of the Organisation (UN) to conduct peace keeping
operations. (look @ Revelation 13 v 4 "And they worshipped
[served] the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they
worshipped [served] the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast?
who is able to make war with him?")
To take concerted action against the menaces of terrorism and drug trafficking and to expedite the adoption of an International Convention against Terrorism.
To minimise the adverse effects of economic sanctions on innocent populations, and to subject sanctions regimes to regular reviews and to eliminate the adverse effects of sanctions on third parties. (effects of sanctions are eliminated if real people are dead)
To take concerted action to prevent the illegal traffic in small arms and light weapons, (to disarm and make defenceless the real people) especially by creating greater transparency in arms transfers and supporting regional disarmament measures, in the light of the recommendations of the International Conference on Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Arms in all its aspects.
To call on all States to sign and ratify the Ottawa Treaty banning the manufacture, production, use and export of anti-personnel landmines. (what else other than landmines is in this Ottawa Treaty?)
To strive towards the elimination of weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons, and to convene a major international conference to identify ways of eliminating nuclear dangers. (earth is of no use to the "elite" if it's all stuffed up with nuclear fallout.)
III. Development and Poverty Eradication
9. We will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanising conditions of extreme poverty, to which more than a billion of them are currently confined. We are committed to fully realising the right to development and freedom from want. (in the UN Charter "spare no effort" means the use of violence)
10. We resolve, therefore, to create an enabling environment-at national and global levels alike- which is conducive to development, the empowerment of women and the elimination of poverty.
11. At the national level, it is now widely accepted (this means that they are working hard on getting the concept accepted not that it has already been accepted) that success in meeting these objectives depends in large measure on the quality of governance within a country. (look out here goes your "Sovereign Nation" status) Internationally, success depends on the existence of an open, equitable, rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, (commercial law spoken of here is Roman law again legs of iron and feet of iron and clay) which guarantees special and differential treatment of developing countries, and on corresponding provisions to facilitate investments, transfer of technology and knowledge as well as financial flows.
12. We also resolve to promote the special needs of the least developed countries and towards that end, call on the industrialised countries to: adopt, by the time of the 3rd United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, (when is that?) a policy of duty-free and quota-free access for essentially all exports from the least developed countries; to implement the enhanced program of debt relief for the heavily indebted poor countries without further delay; to agree to cancel all official debts of those countries in return for their making demonstrable commitments to poverty reduction; and to grant more generous development assistance, especially to countries which are genuinely making an effort to apply their resources to poverty reduction.
13. We also resolve to address the debt problems of low and medium income countries in a comprehensive and definitive manner.
14. We resolve further:
To halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world's people (currently 22 per cent) whose income is less than one dollar a day.
To halve, by the same date, the proportion of people (currently 20 per cent) who are unable to access, or to afford, safe drinking water.
That by the same date children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that girls and boys will have equal access to all levels of education.
That by then we have halted, and begun to reverse, the spread of the HIV/AIDS, the scourge of malaria and other major diseases which afflict humanity.
That, at the same time, we will have reduced the maternal mortality by three- fourths and under 5 infant mortality by two-thirds of their current rates.
That, by 2020, we will have achieved significant improvements in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers in the developing and transitional countries, in accordance with the Cities Without Slums initiative.
15. We also resolve:
To promote gender equality in its own right, and as an effective means of combating poverty, hunger and disease, and of stimulating development.
To develop and implement successful strategies that give young people everywhere the opportunity of finding decent and productive work.
To encourage the pharmaceutical industry to make essential drugs more widely available and affordable to all people in developing countries who need them.
To ensure that the benefits of new technologies, especially information technology, are available to all.
To strengthen cooperation between the United Nations and regional organisations in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VIII of the UN Charter.
To commit our governments to national policies and programmes directed specifically at reducing poverty in the poorest countries, to be developed and applied in consultation with civil society.
To develop strong partnerships with the private sector and civil society organisations in pursuit of development and poverty eradication.
To provide special assistance to children orphaned by HIV/AIDS, as well as those suffering from other diseases and their effects.
IV. Protecting our Common Environment
16. We must spare no effort to free all of humanity, and above all our children and grandchildren, from the threat of living on a planet irredeemably spoilt by human activities, and whose resources can no longer provide for their needs.
17. We resolve, therefore, to adopt in all our environmental
actions a new ethic of conservation and stewardship and, as first
To adopt and ratify the Kyoto Protocol, so that it can enter into force no later than 2002- 10 years after the Rio Conference, and 20 years after the first United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and to begin the required reduction of emissions of greenhouse gasses, especially in developed countries.
To press for the full implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification.
To arrest the unsustainable exploitation of water resources by developing water management strategies at the regional, national and local levels including pricing structures promoting both equitable access and adequate supplies. (turning water into a international commodity under commercial law again Roman Law.)
To intensify cooperation to reduce the number and effects of natural and man-made disasters.
To ensure free access to the information on the genetic code, since this belongs to all humanity.
V. Good Governance, Democracy and Human Rights
18. We will spare no effort to promote democracy and strengthen the rule of law, as well as the respect for all internationally recognised human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development.
19. We resolve, therefore:
To fully observe and uphold the Universal Declaration of
To strive for the full protection and promotion in all our countries of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. (note what's missing? Religious rights have been removed)
To support capacity building in all our countries to implement the principles and practices of democracy and respect for human rights including minority rights. To press for more inclusive and participatory political processes in all of countries.
To rectify the prevailing imbalance in global decision-making, whereby rules to facilitate the expansion of markets have become more robust and enforceable, while measures and international cooperation that promote equally valid social objectives- such as development and poverty eradication, human rights, labour standards or environmental concerns- have lagged behind in implementation.
To ensure the right of the media to perform its essential role of informing the public, and the right of the public to receive ideas and information provided by the media.
VI. Protecting the Vulnerable
20. We will spare no effort to ensure that women and children and all civilian populations who suffer disproportionately the consequences of natural disasters and armed conflicts, are given every assistance and protection to regain normal life. (any protection offered by UN can be taken away by UN and who would tell you?)
We resolve, therefore:
To expand the protection of civilians in complex emergencies.
To combat violence against women in all its forms, (except to allow women to be armed in order to defend themselves against rape etc.)
To encourage the ratification and full implementation of the Convention of the Rights on the Child, (this is where UN says that you are not entitled to teach your own child about your God) as well as the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflicts.
VII. Meeting the Special Needs of Africa
21. Extreme poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa affects a higher proportion of the population than in any other region. It is compounded by a higher incidence of conflict, HIV/AIDS and other hardships.
22. We resolve, therefore, that we will take special measures to address these and other critical needs of Africa, including the need for debt cancellation, improved market access and enhanced ODA and FDI flows and give our full support to Africans in their struggle for durable peace and sustainable development.
VIII. Strengthening the United Nations
23. We will spare no effort to make the United Nations a more effective instrument for pursuing all of these priorities; the fight against poverty, ignorance and disease; the fight against injustice; the fight against violence, terror and crime; and the fight against the degradation and destruction of our common home. (the above reads true if the statements are reversed)
24. We resolve, therefore:
To restore the centrality (One World Government) and enhance
the effectiveness of the General Assembly as the chief deliberative
and representative organ (speaking of part of a body/person
the UN has now been given the status entity of a person at law)
of the United Nations.
To call for the speedy reform and enlargement of the Security Council, making it more representative, effective and legitimate in the eyes of all the world's people. (at present the Security Council is 5 members I wonder if this number will become 10 to line up with the beast in the Bible.)
To further strengthen the Economic and Social Council, building on its recent achievements, so that it may be able to fulfil the role ascribed to it in the Charter. (One world currency "666")
To ensure that the Organisation is provided with adequate resources, on a timely and predictable basis, so that it may carry out its mandates. (One World Tax)
To urge the Secretariat to make the best use of those resources in the interests of all Member States, by adopting the best management practices and technologies available, and by concentrating on those tasks that reflect the priorities of Member States.
To ensure greater policy coherence and enhance cooperation amongst the United Nations, its Agencies, the Breton- Woods Institutions, as well as other multilateral bodies, with a view to securing a fully coordinated approach to the problems of peace and development.
To give full opportunities to civil society, parliamentarians, the private sector and other non-state actors to contribute to the achievement of the Organisation's goals and programs. (National Governments taken over by private sector business)
25. We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration and, in cooperation with the Secretariat, issue periodic reports for information and further action.
26. We solemnly reaffirm on this historic occasion that the United Nations in the indispensable common house of the entire human family, and through which it will be able to realise its universal aspirations for peace, cooperation and development. We will therefore pledge our unstinting support for the attainment of these common objectives. (unstinting support to universal aspirations for peace when the word "Peace" is not defined by the United Nations nor ever has been)
We stand at a critical moment in Earth's history, a time when humanity must choose its future. As the world becomes increasingly interdependent and fragile, the future at once holds great peril and great promise. To move forward we must recognise that in the midst of a magnificent diversity of cultures and life forms we are one human family and one Earth community with a common destiny. We must join together to bring forth a sustainable global society founded on respect for nature, universal human rights, economic justice, and a culture of peace. Towards this end, it is imperative that we, the peoples of Earth, declare our responsibility to one another, to the greater community of life, and to future generations.
Earth, Our Home
Humanity is part of a vast evolving universe. Earth, our home, is alive with a unique community of life. The forces of nature make existence a demanding and uncertain adventure, but Earth has provided the conditions essential to life's evolution. The resilience of the community of life and the well-being of humanity depend upon preserving a healthy biosphere with all its ecological systems, a rich variety of plants and animals, fertile soils, pure waters, and clean air. The global environment with its finite resources is a common concern of all peoples. The protection of Earth's vitality, diversity, and beauty is a sacred trust.
The Global Situation
The dominant patterns of production and consumption are causing environmental devastation, the depletion of resources, and a massive extinction of species. Communities are being undermined. The benefits of development are not shared equitably and the gap between rich and poor is widening. Injustice, poverty, ignorance, and violent conflict are widespread and the cause of great suffering. An unprecedented rise in human population has overburdened ecological and social systems. The foundations of global security are threatened. These trends are perilous-but not inevitable.
The Challenges Ahead
The choice is ours: form a global partnership to care for Earth and one another or risk the destruction of ourselves and the diversity of life. Fundamental changes are needed in our values, institutions, and ways of living. We must realize that when basic needs have been met, human development is primarily about being more, not having more. We have the knowledge and technology to provide for all and to reduce our impacts on the environment. The emergence of a global civil society is creating new opportunities to build a democratic and humane world. Our environmental, economic, political, social, and spiritual challenges are interconnected, and together we can forge inclusive solutions.
To realise these aspirations, we must decide to live with a sense of universal responsibility, identifying ourselves with the whole Earth community as well as our local communities. We are at once citizens of different nations and of one world in which the local and global are linked. Everyone shares responsibility for the present and future well-being of the human family and the larger living world. The spirit of human solidarity and kinship with all life is strengthened when we live with reverence for the mystery of being, gratitude for the gift of life, and humility regarding the human place in nature.
We urgently need a shared vision of basic values to provide
an ethical foundation for the emerging world community. Therefore,
together in hope we affirm the following interdependent principles
for a sustainable way of life as a common standard by which the
conduct of all individuals, organisations, businesses, governments,
and transnational institutions is to be guided and assessed.
I. RESPECT AND CARE FOR THE COMMUNITY OF LIFE
1. Respect Earth and life in all its diversity.
a. Recognise that all beings are interdependent and every form of life has value regardless of its worth to human beings.
b. Affirm faith in the inherent dignity of all human beings and in the intellectual, artistic, ethical, and spiritual potential of humanity.
2. Care for the community of life with understanding, compassion,
a. Accept that with the right to own, manage, and use natural resources comes the duty to prevent environmental harm and to protect the rights of people.
b. Affirm that with increased freedom, knowledge, and power comes increased responsibility to promote the common good.
3. Build democratic societies that are just, participatory,
sustainable, and peaceful.
a. Ensure that communities at all levels guarantee human rights and fundamental freedoms and provide everyone an opportunity to realise his or her full potential.
b. Promote social and economic justice, enabling all to achieve a secure and meaningful livelihood that is ecologically responsible.
4. Secure Earth's bounty and beauty for present and future
a. Recognise that the freedom of action of each generation is qualified by the needs of future generations.
b. Transmit to future generations values, traditions, and institutions that support the long-term flourishing of Earth's human and ecological communities.
In order to fulfil these four broad commitments, it is necessary to:
II. ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY
5. Protect and restore the integrity of Earth's ecological
systems, with special concern for biological diversity and the
natural processes that sustain life.
a. Adopt at all levels sustainable development plans and regulations that make environmental conservation and rehabilitation integral to all development initiatives.
b. Establish and safeguard viable nature and biosphere reserves, including wild lands and marine areas, to protect Earth's life support systems, maintain biodiversity, and preserve our natural heritage.
c. Promote the recovery of endangered species and ecosystems.
d. Control and eradicate non-native or genetically modified organisms harmful to native species and the environment, and prevent introduction of such harmful organisms.
e. Manage the use of renewable resources such as water, soil, forest products, and marine life in ways that do not exceed rates of regeneration and that protect the health of ecosystems.
f. Manage the extraction and use of non-renewable resources such as minerals and fossil fuels in ways that minimise depletion and cause no serious environmental damage.
6. Prevent harm as the best method of environmental protection
and, when knowledge is limited, apply a precautionary approach.
a. Take action to avoid the possibility of serious or irreversible environmental harm even when scientific knowledge is incomplete or inconclusive.
b. Place the burden of proof on those who argue that a proposed activity will not cause significant harm, and make the responsible parties liable for environmental harm.
c. Ensure that decision making addresses the cumulative, long-term, indirect, long distance, and global consequences of human activities.
d. Prevent pollution of any part of the environment and allow no build-up of radioactive, toxic, or other hazardous substances.
e. Avoid military activities damaging to the environment.
7. Adopt patterns of production, consumption, and reproduction
that safeguard Earth's regenerative capacities, human rights,
and community well-being.
a. Reduce, reuse, and recycle the materials used in production and consumption systems, and ensure that residual waste can be assimilated by ecological systems.
b. Act with restraint and efficiency when using energy, and rely increasingly on renewable energy sources such as solar and wind.
c. Promote the development, adoption, and equitable transfer of environmentally sound technologies.
d. Internalise the full environmental and social costs of goods and services in the selling price, and enable consumers to identify products that meet the highest social and environmental standards.
e. Ensure universal access to health care that fosters reproductive health and responsible reproduction.
f. Adopt lifestyles that emphasise the quality of life and material sufficiency in a finite world.
8. Advance the study of ecological sustainability and promote
the open exchange and wide application of the knowledge acquired.
a. Support international scientific and technical cooperation on sustainability, with special attention to the needs of developing nations.
b. Recognise and preserve the traditional knowledge and spiritual wisdom in all cultures that contribute to environmental protection and human well-being.
c. Ensure that information of vital importance to human health and environmental protection, including genetic information, remains available in the public domain.
III. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC JUSTICE
9. Eradicate poverty as an ethical, social, and environmental
a. Guarantee the right to potable water, clean air, food security, uncontaminated soil, shelter, and safe sanitation, allocating the national and international resources required.
b. Empower every human being with the education and resources to secure a sustainable livelihood, and provide social security and safety nets for those who are unable to support themselves.
c. Recognise the ignored, protect the vulnerable, serve those who suffer, and enable them to develop their capacities and to pursue their aspirations.
10. Ensure that economic activities and institutions at
all levels promote human development in an equitable and sustainable
a. Promote the equitable distribution of wealth within nations and among nations.
b. Enhance the intellectual, financial, technical, and social resources of developing nations, and relieve them of onerous international debt.
c. Ensure that all trade supports sustainable resource use, environmental protection, and progressive labour standards.
d. Require multinational corporations and international financial organisations to act transparently in the public good, and hold them accountable for the consequences of their activities.
11. Affirm gender equality and equity as prerequisites to
sustainable development and ensure universal access to education,
health care, and economic opportunity.
a. Secure the human rights of women and girls and end all violence against them.
b. Promote the active participation of women in all aspects of economic, political, civil, social, and cultural life as full and equal partners, decision makers, leaders, and beneficiaries.
c. Strengthen families and ensure the safety and loving nurture of all family members.
12. Uphold the right of all, without discrimination, to
a natural and social environment supportive of human dignity,
bodily health, and spiritual well-being, with special attention
to the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities.
a. Eliminate discrimination in all its forms, such as that based on race, colour, sex, sexual orientation, religion, language, and national, ethnic or social origin.
b. Affirm the right of indigenous peoples to their spirituality, knowledge, lands and resources and to their related practice of sustainable livelihoods.
c. Honour and support the young people of our communities, enabling them to fulfil their essential role in creating sustainable societies.
d. Protect and restore outstanding places of cultural and spiritual significance.
IV. DEMOCRACY, NONVIOLENCE, AND PEACE
13. Strengthen democratic institutions at all levels, and
provide transparency and accountability in governance, inclusive
participation in decision making, and access to justice.
a. Uphold the right of everyone to receive clear and timely information on environmental matters and all development plans and activities which are likely to affect them or in which they have an interest.
b. Support local, regional and global civil society, and promote the meaningful participation of all interested individuals and organisations in decision making.
c. Protect the rights to freedom of opinion, expression, peaceful assembly, association, and dissent.
d. Institute effective and efficient access to administrative and independent judicial procedures, including remedies and redress for environmental harm and the threat of such harm.
e. Eliminate corruption in all public and private institutions.
f. Strengthen local communities, enabling them to care for their environments, and assign environmental responsibilities to the levels of government where they can be carried out most effectively.
14. Integrate into formal education and life-long learning
the knowledge, values, and skills needed for a sustainable way
a. Provide all, especially children and youth, with educational opportunities that empower them to contribute actively to sustainable development.
b. Promote the contribution of the arts and humanities as well as the sciences in sustainability education.
c. Enhance the role of the mass media in raising awareness of ecological and social challenges.
d. Recognise the importance of moral and spiritual education for sustainable living.
15. Treat all living beings with respect and consideration.
a. Prevent cruelty to animals kept in human societies and protect them from suffering.
b. Protect wild animals from methods of hunting, trapping, and fishing that cause extreme, prolonged, or avoidable suffering.
c. Avoid or eliminate to the full extent possible the taking or destruction of non-targeted species.
16. Promote a culture of tolerance, nonviolence, and peace.
a. Encourage and support mutual understanding, solidarity, and cooperation among all peoples and within and among nations.
b. Implement comprehensive strategies to prevent violent conflict and use collaborative problem solving to manage and resolve environmental conflicts and other disputes.
c. Demilitarise national security systems to the level of a non-provocative defence posture, and convert military resources to peaceful purposes, including ecological restoration.
d. Eliminate nuclear, biological, and toxic weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.
e. Ensure that the use of orbital and outer space supports environmental protection and peace.
f. Recognise that peace is the wholeness created by right relationships with oneself, other persons, other cultures, other life, Earth, and the larger whole of which all are a part.
THE WAY FORWARD
As never before in history, common destiny beckons us to seek a new beginning. Such renewal is the promise of these Earth Charter principles. To fulfil this promise, we must commit ourselves to adopt and promote the values and objectives of the Charter.
This requires a change of mind and heart. It requires a new sense of global interdependence and universal responsibility. We must imaginatively develop and apply the vision of a sustainable way of life locally, nationally, regionally, and globally. Our cultural diversity is a precious heritage and different cultures will find their own distinctive ways to realise the vision. We must deepen and expand the global dialogue that generated the Earth Charter, for we have much to learn from the ongoing collaborative search for truth and wisdom.
Life often involves tensions between important values. This can mean difficult choices. However, we must find ways to harmonise diversity with unity, the exercise of freedom with the common good, short-term objectives with long-term goals. Every individual, family, organisation, and community has a vital role to play. The arts, sciences, religions, educational institutions, media, businesses, nongovernmental organisations, and governments are all called to offer creative leadership. The partnership of government, civil society, and business is essential for effective governance.
In order to build a sustainable global community, the nations of the world must renew their commitment to the United Nations, fulfil their obligations under existing international agreements, and support the implementation of Earth Charter principles with an international legally binding instrument on environment and development.
Let ours be a time remembered for the awakening of a new
reverence for life, the firm resolve to achieve sustainability,
the quickening of the struggle for justice and peace, and the
joyful celebration of life.
List of United Nations Member States
With the admission of Tuvalu, there are now 189 Member States of the United Nations. The Member States and the dates on which they joined the Organization are listed below:
Member -- (Date of Admission)
Afghanistan -- (19 Nov. 1946)
Albania -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Algeria -- (8 Oct. 1962)
Andorra -- (28 July 1993)
Angola -- (1 Dec. 1976)
Antigua and Barbuda -- (11 Nov. 1981)
Argentina -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Armenia -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Australia -- (1 Nov. 1945)
Austria-- (14 Dec. 1955)
Azerbaijan -- (9 Mar. 1992)
Bahamas -- (18 Sep. 1973)
Bahrain -- (21 Sep. 1971)
Bangladesh -- (17 Sep. 1974)
Barbados -- (9 Dec. 1966)
Belarus -- (24 Oct. 1945)
On 19 September 1991, Byelorussia informed the United Nations that it had changed its name to Belarus.
Belgium -- (27 Dec. 1945)
Belize -- (25 Sep. 1981)
Benin -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Bhutan -- (21 Sep. 1971)
Bolivia -- (14 Nov. 1945)
Bosnia and Herzegovina -- (22 May 1992)
Botswana -- (17 Oct. 1966)
Brazil -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Brunei Darussalam -- (21 Sep. 1984)
Bulgaria -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Burkina Faso -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Burundi -- (18 Sep. 1962)
Cambodia -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Cameroon -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Canada -- (9 Nov. 1945)
Cape Verde -- (16 Sep. 1975)
Central African Republic -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Chad -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Chile -- (24 Oct. 1945)
China -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Colombia -- (5 Nov. 1945)
Comoros -- (12 Nov. 1975)
Congo -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Costa Rica -- (2 Nov. 1945)
Côte d'Ivoire -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Croatia -- (22 May 1992)
Cuba -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Cyprus -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Czech Republic -- (19 Jan. 1993)
Czechoslovakia was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. In a letter dated 10 December 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as successor States, would apply for membership in the United Nations. Following the receipt of its application, the Security Council, on 8 January, recommended to the General Assembly that the Czech Republic be admitted to United Nations membership. The Czech Republic was thus admitted on 19 January as a Member State.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Democratic Republic of the Congo -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Denmark -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Djibouti -- (20 Sep. 1977)
Dominica -- (18 Dec. 1978)
Dominican Republic -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Ecuador -- (21 Dec. 1945)
Egypt -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Egypt and Syria were original Members of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single Member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations. On 2 September 1971, the United Arab Republic changed its name to the Arab Republic of Egypt.
El Salvador -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Equatorial Guinea -- (12 Nov. 1968)
Eritrea -- (28 May 1993)
Estonia -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Ethiopia -- (13 Nov. 1945)
Fiji -- (13 Oct. 1970)
Finland -- (14 Dec. 1955)
France -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Gabon -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Gambia -- (21 Sep. 1965)
Georgia -- (31 July 1992)
Germany -- (18 Sep. 1973)
The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic were admitted to membership in the United Nations on 18 September 1973. Through the accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany, effective from 3 October 1990, the two German States have united to form one sovereign State.
Ghana -- (8 Mar. 1957)
Greece -- (25 Oct. 1945)
Grenada -- (17 Sep. 1974)
Guatemala -- (21 Nov. 1945)
Guinea -- (12 Dec. 1958)
Guinea-Bissau -- (17 Sep. 1974)
Guyana -- (20 Sep. 1966)
Haiti -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Honduras -- (17 Dec. 1945)
Hungary -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Iceland -- (19 Nov. 1946)
India -- (30 Oct. 1945)
Indonesia -- (28 Sep. 1950)
By letter of 20 January 1965, Indonesia announced its decision to withdraw from the United Nations "at this stage and under the present circumstances". By telegram of 19 September 1966, it announced its decision "to resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities". On 28 September 1966, the General Assembly took note of this decision and the President invited representatives of
Indonesia to take seats in the Assembly.
Iran (Islamic Republic of)-- (24 Oct. 1945)
Iraq -- (21 Dec. 1945)
Ireland -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Israel -- (11 May 1949)
Italy -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Jamaica -- (18 Sep. 1962)
Japan -- (18 Dec. 1956)
Jordan -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Kazakhstan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Kenya -- (16 Dec. 1963)
Kiribati -- (14 Sept. 1999)
Kuwait -- (14 May 1963)
Kyrgyzstan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Lao People's Democratic Republic -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Latvia -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Lebanon -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Lesotho -- (17 Oct. 1966)
Liberia -- (2 Nov. 1945)
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Liechtenstein -- (18 Sep. 1990)
Lithuania -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Luxembourg -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Madagascar -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Malawi -- (1 Dec. 1964)
Malaysia -- (17 Sep. 1957)
The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations on 17 September 1957.
On 16 September 1963, its name was changed to Malaysia, following the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore became an independent State on 9 August 1965 and a Member of the United Nations on 21 September 1965.
Maldives -- (21 Sep. 1965)
Mali -- (28 Sep. 1960)
Malta -- (1 Dec. 1964)
Marshall Islands -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Mauritania -- (7 Oct. 1961)
Mauritius -- (24 Apr. 1968)
Mexico -- (7 Nov. 1945)
Micronesia (Federated States of)-- (17 Sep. 1991)
Monaco -- (28 May 1993)
Mongolia -- (27 Oct. 1961)
Morocco -- (12 Nov. 1956)
Mozambique -- (16 Sep. 1975)
Myanmar -- (19 Apr. 1948)
Namibia -- (23 Apr. 1990)
Nauru -- (14 Sept. 1999)
Nepal -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Netherlands -- (10 Dec. 1945)
New Zealand -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Nicaragua -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Niger -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Nigeria -- (7 Oct. 1960)
Norway -- (27 Nov. 1945)
Oman -- (7 Oct. 1971)
Pakistan -- (30 Sep. 1947)
Palau -- (15 Dec. 1994)
Panama -- (13 Nov. 1945)
Papua New Guinea -- (10 Oct. 1975)
Paraguay -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Peru -- (31 Oct. 1945)
Philippines -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Poland -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Portugal -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Qatar -- (21 Sep. 1971)
Republic of Korea -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Republic of Moldova -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Romania -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Russian Federation -- (24 Oct. 1945)
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. In a letter dated 24 December 1991, Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian Federation, informed the Secretary-General that the membership of the Soviet Union in the Security Council and all other United Nations organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Rwanda -- (18 Sep. 1962)
Saint Kitts and Nevis -- (23 Sep. 1983)
Saint Lucia -- (18 Sep. 1979)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -- (16 Sep. 1980)
Samoa -- (15 Dec. 1976)
San Marino -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Sao Tome and Principe -- (16 Sep. 1975)
Saudi Arabia -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Senegal -- (28 Sep. 1960)
Seychelles -- (21 Sep. 1976)
Sierra Leone -- (27 Sep. 1961)
Singapore -- (21 Sep. 1965)
Slovakia -- (19 Jan. 1993)
Czechoslovakia was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. In a letter dated 10 December 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as successor States, would apply for membership in the United Nations. Following the receipt of its application, the Security Council, on 8 January, recommended to the General Assembly that the Slovak Republic be admitted to United Nations membership. The Slovak Republic was thus admitted on 19 January as a Member State.
Slovenia -- (22 May 1992)
Solomon Islands -- (19 Sep. 1978)
Somalia -- (20 Sep. 1960)
South Africa -- (7 Nov. 1945)
Spain -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Sri Lanka -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Sudan -- (12 Nov. 1956)
Suriname -- (4 Dec. 1975)
Swaziland -- (24 Sep. 1968)
Sweden -- (19 Nov. 1946)
Syrian Arab Republic -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Egypt and Syria were original Members of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single Member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations.
Tajikistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Thailand -- (16 Dec. 1946)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia -- (8 Apr. 1993)
The General Assembly decided on 8 April 1993 to admit to United Nations membership the State being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the United Nations as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" pending settlement of the difference that had arisen over its name.
Togo -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Tonga -- (14 Sept. 1999)
Trinidad and Tobago -- (18 Sep. 1962)
Tunisia -- (12 Nov. 1956)
Turkey -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Turkmenistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Tuvalu -- (5 Sept. 2000)
Uganda -- (25 Oct. 1962)
Ukraine -- (24 Oct. 1945)
United Arab Emirates -- (9 Dec. 1971)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland -- (24 Oct. 1945)
United Republic of Tanzania -- (14 Dec. 1961)
Tanganyika was a Member of the United Nations from 14 December 1961 and Zanzibar was a Member from 16 December 1963. Following the ratification on 26 April 1964 of Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar continued as a single Member, changing its name to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 November 1964.
United States of America -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Uruguay -- (18 Dec. 1945)
Uzbekistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Vanuatu -- (15 Sep. 1981)
Venezuela -- (15 Nov. 1945)
Viet Nam -- (20 Sep. 1977)
Yemen -- (30 Sep. 1947)
Yemen was admitted to membership in the United Nations on 30 September 1947 and Democratic Yemen on 14 December 1967. On 22 May 1990, the two countries merged and have since been represented as one Member with the name "Yemen".
Yugoslavia -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Zambia -- (1 Dec. 1964)
Zimbabwe -- (25 Aug. 1980)