St. John's Wort
Hypericum perforatum

Other Names: Spotted St. Johnswort, Hypericum, Klamath Weed, Touch-and-heal, Goat weed, Rosin Rose.

  

Habitat
   St. John's Wort is a perennial herb native to North America and Canada from Nova Scotia, Ontario Quebec south to the United States, eastern states. Found growing in open sunny or partial shady areas, along roadsides in dry, gravelly soils.

Cultivation
    St. John's Wort is easy to grow from seed or root division in spring or autumn, in any well-drained but moisture retentive soil. Succeeds in dry soils, prefers sun or semi-shade.

Description
    A woody branched root system produces many round, erect, stems branching at the leaf axis, which are covered with dark red dots, stems are solid dark red at base. Growing to a height of 1 to 3 feet, The leaves are opposite, sessile and smooth edged, oblong to linear, light green and smooth, covered with small transparent oil glands that look like holes, more visible when held to bright light. The cymes of yellow flowers, grow atop each stem. The five petals are dotted with black along the margins, the center or ovary is surround by many stamens, causing it to appear furry, flowers bloom from June to September. The fruit is a three celled capsule containing small, dark brown seeds. Gather top 6 to 8 inches of plants when flowers are in bloom, dry for later use.

Properties
There are 400 species of St. John's Wort found throughout the world, it has been used as a medicinal for thousands of years, but has only recently been studied for its medicinal value. Now proven to have many highly active compounds including rutin, pectin, choline, sitosterol, hypericin and pseudohypericin. The flowers and leaves are medicinal as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aromatic, astringent, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, nervine, resolvent, sedative, stimulant, vermifuge and vulnerary. Some compounds of the plant have been shown to have potent anti-retroviral activity without serious side effects and they are being researched in the treatment of AIDS.Hypericum perforatum is thought to be a mild antidepressant of the class "MAO inhibitor." The mechanism by which St. John's Wort acts as an antidepressant is not fully understood. Early research indicated that this it mildly inhibits the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). MAO is responsible for the breakdown of two brain chemicals - serotonin and nor epinephrine. By inhibiting MAO and increasing nor epinephrine, it may exert a mild anti-depressive action. The antidepressant or mood elevating effects of Hypericum perforatum were originally thought to be due solely to hypericin, but hypericin does not act alone, it relies on the complex interplay of many constituents such as xanthones and flavonoids for its antidepressant actions. Hypericum perforatum may also block the receptors that bind serotonin and so maintain normal mood and emotional stability.

Hypericum perforatum is used in treating a wide range of disorders, including pulmonary complaints, bladder problems, diarrhea and nervous depression. It is also very effectual in treating bed wetting in children. It has a sedative and pain reducing effect, it is especially regarded as an herb to use where there are menopausal changes triggering irritability and anxiety. In addition to neuralgic pain, it will ease fibrosistis, sciatica and rheumatic pain. The oil extract of the plant can be taken for stomach ache, colic, intestinal problems, and as an expectorant for the congestion in the lungs. Externally, a medicinal infusion of the flowers in olive oil is applied to wounds, sores, burns, ulcers, swellings, cramps, rheumatism, tumors, caked breasts, and other skin problems. It is also valued in the treatment of sunburn and as a cosmetic preparation to the skin. Persons with fair skin should avoid exposure to strong sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet light, such as tanning beds, while taking St. John's Wort. These individuals may suffer a dermatitis, severe burning, and possibly blistering of the skin. The severity of these effects will depend on the amount of the plant consumed and the length of exposure to sunlight.

Recipes

"Medicinal" tea: Pour 1 cup of boiling water over l-2 teaspoonfuls of the dried herb and steep for l0-l5 minutes. This should be drunk three times a day.

Oil: Fill a pint jar loosely with dried herb, poor olive oil to top, seal tightly and allow to infuse for 4 to 5 weeks, shaking the jar occasionally.  

St. John's Wort has recently become one of the heavyweight herbs in medicine, mostly due to it's reputed anti-depressant effects.  Lesser known medicinal attributes of this plant include usefulness as an antiseptic, pain killer, and anti-viral agent.

Externally, St. John's Wort can be made into an ointment for bruises, wounds, burns, hemorrhoids, sunburn, herpes sores, varicose veins, sciatica, and nerve pain.  An oil can be made to rub on areas affected by arthritis and rheumatism, and massaged around the spinal cord for back pain symptoms.

Internally, St. John's Wort is believed to be of benefit for symptoms of  depression, anxiety, cough, digestion, bronchial problems, diarrhea, menstrual problems, fatigue, flu, gout, insomnia, irritability, and ulcers.  As an anti-depressant, it may take some time when used regularly to have any noticeable effects.  A tea can be made for any of the above symptoms using the leaves or flowers, and the dosage should be 1-2 cups morning and night until the symptoms retreat.  Capsules can also be made from the flowers or leaves after drying and pulverizing into a powder.